LCD Monitor Panel Types Explained

A monitor is a screen that displays a computer or television picture, showing text or images. There are a many different types of monitors available because of different technologies and body types. LCD monitors use liquid crystal technology to control the colors and movement.

The LCD Monitor Panel is a component that is found in the screen of an LCD screen. It is made from glass, plastic, and metal. The LCD monitor panel has a number of different functions and is involved in the production of an LCD screen. The LCD monitor panel is also used in the production of the LCD screen. The LCD monitor panel is used in LCD screens.

LCD monitor panels come in a variety of colors, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. In this article, I will be explaining what each of the colors on the LCD monitor panels do, and give you a few tips to help you choose the right one for your needs.

e3Learning contributed this image to Flickr.

LCD technology has progressed tremendously. The days of ultra-expensive 1080p screens, fluorescent illumination domination, and optically passive big LCDs are long gone. They’re widely regarded as the standard display technology for all applications, and they’re still continuing strong thanks to recent innovations that cost less than competing display technologies.

Different LCD kinds represent different elements that affect the level of performance or availability to consumers in the industrial world. In this article, we’ll delve further into each category, gain a better understanding of it, and perhaps demonstrate its inner workings in a clear and straightforward manner.

What Are LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) and How Do They Work?

Different layers of light filters, each constructed in a specific way to bend, change wavelength, or change direction, are used in liquid crystal displays. As photons from a light source flow through it (or on it in the case of optically passive ones), a pattern emerges that reflects the image intended to be displayed by the display hardware.

The liquid crystal layer is, as you may have guessed, the most critical layer of this screen sandwich. A liquid crystal is, well, basically what it sounds like: a fluidized sheet of crystal. Each set of crystals representing one pixel realigns to a predetermined orientation when current is passed through this layer. This alters the properties of light travelling through it dramatically, resulting in the colors and hues that will be merged to make an image.

Other layers in the crystal display often assist in orienting the modulated light beams so that the image appears as intended. If the LCD doesn’t have a polarization filter, for example, the image will be so blurry that it will look like one big unidentifiable smudge. When viewed regularly, the backlight will also not illuminate the way it should. The rest of the image projecting attributes are configured for distinct spec goals by internal processing systems (blue light filtering, ghosting reduction, enhanced frame scheduling for adaptive sync technologies, etc.).

Because the LCD does not produce light (unlike other display technologies like CRT, OLED, or even plasma), a backlight is required for it to work as we know it today. Those who are familiar with the original Gameboy Advance, for example, may recall how much better it is to play on a Gameboy Advance SP, simply because the former did not have a backlight at the time.

1. Nematic Twist (TN)

How Does TN Work?

The term “nematic” is essentially a physics term. In particular, it refers to a phase in which each individual crystal in a system is positioned and orientated along the same axis, but not precisely aligned. Consider the crystals as people who are falling in line and facing the same way, but each one is slightly off-center.

Panja-san contributed this image to Wikimedia Commons.


When an electric field is provided to a twisted nematic display, parallel state orientation-based alignment control of liquid crystal molecules is used. When no current is applied to a crystal (in its OFF state, at left), it maintains a spiral (twisted) structure, with a large gap that allows light to pass through without modulation. The liquid crystals line up when an electric field is applied (switched to its ON state, at right), forming a structure that blocks the flow of light. Light can partially pass through at different settings depending on how the crystals are stacked in this fashion, providing the colors required for the display.

TN screens are the most ancient of all commercial displays available today. Technically, TN was conceived in 1927, but the first physical gadgets that utilised it didn’t arrive until 1962, when official research into such uses began.

The Benefits and Drawbacks of TN Panels

Because it is the oldest of the current major LCD kinds, most of TN’s fundamental flaws stem from the fact that its image generating technology had a performance limit.

On the plus side, there’s:

  • (Relatively) Low-Cost — Over the last few decades, TN technology has benefited greatly from economies of scale. Because TN panels are produced in greater quantities than any other type of panel, and because of highly optimized component production/assembly manufacturing procedures, TN panels are frequently less expensive than the competitors. However, because optimization has caught up with the rest of the display technology, this advantage is no longer as significant.
  • Higher refresh rates, faster response times – the needed speed at which the crystals change configuration for TN is apparently quite fast. As a result, it achieves refresh rates and response times that were previously higher than those of newer LCD panels. For many years, this, combined with the inexpensive cost of the TN versions, made them the de facto budget gaming monitors. Today, the distinction between panel types is less obvious, especially among VAs with similar budgets.
  • Low Power Consumption? TN panels were comparatively energy-efficient because to their simplified layout and various semi-outdated lighting options. However, because we’re talking about LCD screens, this advantage isn’t particularly significant unless you’re utilizing 10 screens at once or something.

The following are the traditional drawbacks of TN panels:

  • Poor viewing angles – this is, without a doubt, the most obvious intrinsic disadvantage of TN panels, owing to the fact that it is an older form of technology. Colors grow increasingly washed out as you travel away from the optimal viewing angle (front), eventually becoming virtually negative when viewed from the extreme sides. Definitely not the panel to see with a group these days.
  • Color reproduction is poor – the colors are washed out by default, not only as you change viewing angles. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing, and it would look great if there were no VA or IPS panels nearby. When the screen is only used for casual purposes or on programs that don’t care about color fidelity, the same is true. If you’re a video editor or something similar, though, TN panels should be avoided at all costs.

Is a TN Monitor Right for You?

No, not anymore, in a nutshell. Long answer: if you’re a fan of refresh rates and response times.

Look, we understand the pain of those who, due to budgetary constraints, are unable to build PCs properly. We understand that there is no bang-for-your-buck argument, and that you must make do with what you have because nothing else is on the way. As a result, TN panels are a good choice if you need a monitor for a specific period of time. They’re the only low-cost option, after all, so get whatever you can (as long as the model is trustworthy) and use it right away.

However, as we mentioned while discussing the benefits of TN panels, VA and IPS panels have largely caught up in terms of pricing. In terms of absolute prices, TN is still significantly less expensive (especially when we consider the default refresh rates of current-generation TN models). However, you are no longer required to triple your investment simply to upgrade to higher-tier display panels.

If you can save your money for a few weeks or a month or two, it’s well worth it to choose any of the display panels that will be detailed below.

2. Alignment vertically (VA)

How Does a Virtual Assistant Work?

The terms used to name this panel are also the ones used to describe how it operates, as one might assume. A VA panel can operate using liquid crystals arranged in a vertically aligned position if TN represents lines of liquid crystals in a semi-imperfect layout.

Samsung is the source of this image.


The perpendicularly oriented liquid crystals in this simplified diagram represent the OFF state of a VA panel. It flips to its ON state when they are aligned parallel to the screen layers themselves, allowing light to pass through and modulate it.

Just a moment… Does this imply that a VA panel’s OFF state is the same as a TN panel’s ON state?

Yes, technically. However, keep in mind that depending on the image, the entire screen modulates light differently. You must still account for the entire substrate, where additional liquid crystals may be oriented differently at the same time. In Virginia, either parallel (ON) or perpendicular (PER) is used (OFF). Twisted/spiral (OFF) and perpendicular (ON) for TN (OFF). In addition, the perpendicular alignment of VA panels is nearly perfect. In contrast, as previously stated, the ON state of a TN panel exhibits this “same orientation but kind of skewed a bit” defect.

Samsung is the source of this image.


Super-VA – is a variation of Samsung’s technology in which the liquid crystals are separated into additional pixel domains, orientated at multiple angles to alternate with each other, rather than only perpendicular/parallel alignments. What distinguishes Super-VA from other liquid crystal configurations? According to Samsung, all of VA’s shortcomings in comparison to IPS have been minimized even further. Although not quite at the same level as IPS, SVA can be considered a “improved” option due to the cheaper cost of VA.

In any event, the basic designs of VA panels produce substantially more perceptible contrast than all other panel types due to how they are positioned when modulating light. However, saturation levels are unevenly distributed, resulting in a “tunnel effect” that makes the outlying portions of the screen appear duller than the center.

In terms of overall features, VA monitors are usually a step ahead from TN panels on all levels, however they never quite match IPS, even in newer, more updated models.

The Benefits and Drawbacks of VA Panels

As a type of technological middle ground between the earlier TN and the more current IPS, VA panels perform exceptionally well. As a result, its specs are frequently found to be in the middle of the two.

There are a variety of options for VA professionals, including:

  • Great contrast ratio levels – as previously said, VA panels are fully capable of displaying deeper colors without the usage of specific tuning choices or features due to its natural functioning manner. Should go nicely with any additional aesthetic boosts that enhance shadows.
  • In general, a VA panel is a good all-rounder; when it comes to value for money, you can’t go wrong with one. It has higher specifications than its TN rivals at a price that isn’t as exorbitant as its IPS siblings. In reality, VA panels can have a speciality that is similar to that of another type of panel. It is, for example, virtually as inexpensive as a TN while offering nearly the same color accuracy as an IPS.
  • Standardized viewing angles – not really an advantage in and of itself, but when compared to TN, VA raises the viewing angle range to the minimum required for routine viewing nowadays (which is 170 degrees or more).

The following are some of the disadvantages of VA:

  • Poor response times – VA panels are notorious for having slower response times than TN or even (new) IPS panels. Although subjective ghosting effects are unlikely to ruin your movie marathon weekends, they may have a negative impact on your gaming sessions.
  • The smearing effect – VA panels are prone to “smearing,” the ghosting of a complete portion of static visual elements when they are modified (scrolled up and down, for example) on the screen, due to a tiny mismatch between response times and refresh rates.
  • Color fidelity is still insufficient for professional workloads, while VA is far superior to TN in this regard. However, when compared to IPS at the greatest usage level, it is simply insufficient. IPS is still the best option for full-time picture and video editors.

Is a VA Monitor Right for You?

In a nutshell, it depends. Long answer: Go for it if it’s an updated model on a tighter budget!

VA panels have ruffled the feathers of monitor aficionados over the years. First, because of the continual advancement of IPS displays, as well as the ultimate aggressive pricing they will have when they become more widely used. Second, the surviving old models continue to tarnish the technology’s reputation by displaying its flaws, something that even TN no longer does (as the worst TN panels have since then been rendered obsolete).

So, are VA panels inferior to IPS panels? Yes. They have lower specifications in comparison. Even more so when an IPS equivalent is available within the same product series. However, the disadvantages are no longer as obvious. At the very least, these drawbacks aren’t as severe as they once were. If you’re using a VA panel that was created, modeled, and made within the last year or two (by trustworthy companies), your viewing experience will very certainly be comparable to that of an IPS lover. Yes, even in video games. And, on occasion, even for simple video editing chores.

Just a hmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm Just don’t put identical VA and IPS models next to each other.

3. Switching in-plane (IPS)

How Does IPS Work?

As a result, TN spins into horizontal and vertical positions while maintaining its perpendicular axis, and VA twists around a 90-degree orientation while remaining parallel. IPS panels combine the best of both worlds. It remains perfectly parallel to the substrate (plane), but rotates into varied angles to modulate light. In a word, this form of display allows the liquid crystal alignment to vary freely without going too far into the substrate.


In other words, it toggles between ON and OFF states in the same plane, hence the term “in-plane switching.” The liquid crystals are still neatly packed and sandwiched into each other when viewed sideways because they merely rotate to change and adjust the characteristics of light that travels through them.

Plane-to-Line Switching (PLS) – is a new form of a panel type invented by Samsung, this time IPS. Although the details of how the liquid crystals function with this configuration have yet to be formally published, the business claims that it is a better optimized version of generally the same technology. Samsung says that PLS (or Super PLS) can deliver even better viewing angles (which is already a specialty of standard IPS) and overall image quality improvements in most advertising. PLS monitors are also advertised as being more desk-space-friendly due to their increased flexibility.

AU Optronics has been developing another IPS variation, Advanced Hyper-Viewing Angle (AHVA), since 2012. Similar to PLS, the technical details of how its liquid crystal display works (and how it differs from standard IPS) are kept under wraps. An AHVA monitor is said to have faster intrinsic reaction times, albeit a small amount of color fidelity appears to be sacrificed in the process.

An IPS panel’s “clean” and efficient liquid crystal architecture allows it to become one of the top LCD panels in terms of display quality. They were aggressively touted as the sort of display that was meant to eliminate the present (at the time) limitations of LCD technology. They were most notable for color accuracy and wide color range. Due to the aforementioned general qualities, they are often the default form of panel that professionals will utilize for their typical everyday duties.

The Benefits and Drawbacks of IPS Panels

IPS panels were once thought to be the standard mid-tier to high-end LCD panel type because of their more premium image quality. While it was initially unsuitable for gaming, it has recently evolved to the point where its gaming-related flaws have been greatly addressed.

The following are some of the advantages of using an IPS panel:

  • Wide color gamut/high color accuracy — the extremely modular design of IPS liquid crystal adjustment allows for color reproduction that is nearly identical to that of real-life counterparts. IPS manages to exhibit exceptionally colorful details in both entertainment and gaming, thanks to improvements in contrast and shadows over the last several years.
  • Consistent viewing angles — IPS panel viewing angles are not only increased, but they also do not alter regardless of where the user is oriented on-screen. Remember that, unlike TN and VA, the liquid crystals in an IPS screen do not twist in and out of the substrate, therefore the colors you see on the screen will remain consistent even when viewed from all sides.
  • Color does not distort under pressure – When light pressure is applied to an IPS panel, such as placing your fingers on it, it does not become dull for a brief while. When employing touchscreen IPS monitors, this could be crucial.

Of course, IPS has its own drawbacks, which include:

  • When exposed to extremely dark/blackened images, IPS glow is a unique type of backlight leakage in which the edges themselves appear brighter. The IPS equivalent of the VA’s smearing effect. Both of these intrinsic unfavorable features have been minimized enough by more current models to not affect casual users too much.
  • Higher intrinsic response times — IPS panels have much faster base response times than TN screens, which might affect active applications like gaming. Modern IPS monitors with 1ms reaction rates typically use a combination of features to achieve that degree of effective response time.
  • Higher power consumption? – When compared to VA and TN panels, IPS panels have a higher power demand during load. However, because we’re talking about LCD technology, the amount isn’t really bothersome or even apparent. Take special care of this while utilizing gaming models with much higher refresh rates (those do consume a good amount of power).
  • More expensive? – IPS panels are predictably the most expensive, as they have the most difficult manufacturing process due to their liquid crystal substrates. But don’t get me wrong: I’m not saying that. IPS monitors have gotten significantly more affordable over time, making them much more accessible than before. However, when compared to equally priced (updated)VA panels, they are still technically more expensive.

Should You Invest in an IPS Display?

Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes Long answer: Find a model with a good specification and splurge!

The first wave of IPS panels was amazing, displaying a number of features that we could only dream of in traditional VA and TN. Regular tech users, on the other hand, perceived it as a premium alternative, a luxury item for people with the financial means to purchase higher-end technology.

However, IPS displays have since dropped in price to the point that the MSRP difference between them and competitive VA monitors is no longer significant. One, we have a good set of built-in features that highlight its visual supremacy (which, don’t you believe, is crucial for a visual-based hardware?). Two, most of its technical flaws (most notably, its longer response times) have already been rectified by technological advancements or by outright modernizing its most visible features. Three, economies of scale have allowed IPS to be launched into the market today at a price point that is no longer considered “premium” or “luxury.”

Yeah, we don’t see why you shouldn’t go IPS if you can pinch your budget a little more to get there. Even more so because there are valid professional reasons to prefer IPS over VA and TN.

Oh, there’s a competitive top-of-the-line current-generation VA monitor right around the corner? In that scenario, choose the less expensive choice.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What type of LCD panel is best?

The best LCD panel is a Samsung QLED TV.

What are the different monitor panel types?

There are three types of monitor panels. They are CRT, LCD, and OLED.

Is VA or IPS better?

VA is better because it has a higher refresh rate.

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